Management options for heart failure may include a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, implantable devices such as a pacemaker, PA pressure monitor or a defibrillator providing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Later stage advanced treatment options include a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or transplant.
Women also experience differences in the epidemiology and pathophysiology that impact treatment of HFrEF and HFpEF.1 Factors such as lower body weight and plasma volume can contribute to a longer duration of action of lipophilic drugs and higher peak plasma concentrations of hydrophilic drugs. Similarly, lower cardiac output in women contributes to higher plasma levels of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs in women.2
Women are both less likely to receive MCS for a cardiogenic shock and more likely to experience complications on durable MCS support.
Men are more likely to receive both a durable LVAD or heart transplantation and experience lower mortality and better outcomes on LVAD support.
Benefit from ARNI due to relative natriuretic peptide deficit. Experience significant sex treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.
Underlying ATTR pathology may limit neurohormonal blockage response.
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